How To Make A Powerpoint With Music In The Background The Misuse and Overuse of English Articles by ESL and EFL Students

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The Misuse and Overuse of English Articles by ESL and EFL Students

Many languages ​​differ from English in terms of meaning, syntax and grammar. Despite the many differences, this article explores article usage, misuse, and acquisition. I predict that speakers of languages ​​other than English that lack the text system (Korean, Russian, Polish, and Japanese) will display language transfer errors in the English text system a / an, the or zero when learning to speak English. Research has shown that non-native English speakers make mistakes when speaking English if their native language lacks text.

Ionin, Ko, and Wexler (2003) tested L2 acquisition language theory as it relates to the use of text. They predict that English, Korean and Russian learners will overuse the text in specific and non-specific contexts and indefinitely. In a 2004 study, Ekiert examined the acquisition and misuse of English text systems by Polish speakers studying English in ESL and EFL settings. Neal Snape, 2004, reviewed the use of texts by English, Japanese and Spanish learners and suggested that due to the L2 acquisition process, all English learners would make systematic transfer errors related to English texts.

In a 2003 analysis conducted by Ionin, Ko and Wexler, English, Russian, and Korean scholars were studied in relation to their use of English texts. The participants in this study were 50 English learners, Russians aged 17-57 with an average age of 38 years, who lived in the United States for an average of about 3 years (3 Year 2 months). There were also 38 Korean English learners aged 17 to 38 with an average age of 28 who lived in the United States for an average of only 2 years (1 year 10 months). All of these participants were exposed to English in their home country at a young age or in their teens, but were not completely exposed until they came to the United States in late adolescence or adulthood. There were also control groups involved in this study. It is made up of seven adult native English speakers. They performed as expected on all assignments.

Ionin, Ko and Wexler (2003) note that the data for this study were collected in the form of a forced assignment, and participants were asked to complete a written section of the Michigan Test of L2 Skills, a 30-choice multiple choice test. Which puts learners in groups. Up to Ability Level (Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced). The researchers also noted in the results section that there was another task that was not reported in this study. For the excerpt, there were 56 short conversations that tested 14 context types that participants had to choose between a, the, and null article (- ) For singular and some, the, and – for plural. The studies of Ionin, Ko, and Wexler illustrate examples of elicitation discussions on pages 250-25252. Three types of contexts that aim to eliminate indefinite specific singulars. Former –

In “Lost and Found”:

Clerk: Can I help you? Are you looking for something you have lost?

Customer: Yes, I know you have a lot of things here, but maybe you have what I need. You see, I’m looking for (a, the, -) green towel. I think I lost it here last week.

Three context types are used to retrieve indefinite indefinitely: e.g.

In the clothing store:

Clerk: Can I help you?

Customer: Yes, please! I followed all the stalls without success. I’m looking for (a, the, -) warm hats. It was very cold outside.

Two contexts tested indefinite plurals (specific and non-specific). Former –

Telephone conversations: (Specific)

Jewelry: Hello, this is Robertson jewelry. What can I do for you, ladies? Are you looking for jewelry? Or interested in selling?

Customer: Yes, the sale is right. I want to sell you (some, the, -) beautiful necklace. They are very valuable.

Telephone conversations: (not specific)

Seller: Hello, Erik grocery delivery. What can I do for you?

Customer: Yes, I have an exotic order.

Seller: We may be able to help you.

Customer: I want to buy green tomatoes (some, -). I am making a special Mexican sauce.

Two context types are designed to extract specific definition phrases (DP) in plural and singular contexts. Example:

Definition of singular

Richard: I visited my friend Kelly yesterday. Kelly really likes animals, she has two cats and a dog. Last night Kelly was busy – she was studying for an exam. So I helped her with her pet.

Maryanne: What did you do?

Richard: I took the dog (a, the, -) for a walk.

Plural definition

Rosalyn: My cousin went to school yesterday. He took one notebook and two notebooks.

New book with him to school and he was very excited. He is so proud to have his school supplies! But he came home really sad.

Jane: What made him so sad? Did he lose something of his?

Rosalin: Yes! He lost the book (some, this, -).

Since the results of this study are broken down into competency levels, Michigan test results are given first. The L1-Korean group consists of 1 beginner, 12 intermediate and 25 advanced English learners. The L1-Russian team consists of 13 beginners, 15 intermediate and 22 advanced English learners. The results show that intermediate and advanced learners generally overuse in indefinite contexts. The results also show that consumption is higher by definition than indefinite, and also higher by specificity than non-specific. The researchers also noted that text deletion was higher with plural DPs.

Overall, it is noted that L1-Korean students performed better than L1-Russian speakers in most categories. The difference in practice is assumed that “L1-Korean students are mostly international students who receive intensive English instruction, while speakers come from a variety of backgrounds” (Ionin, Ko and Wexler). , 2003).

In a similar study conducted by Monica Ekiert in 2004, the acquisition of English text systems by Polish speakers was studied in ESL and EFL settings. Participants in this study included 10 adult Polish English Learners (ESL), 10 Polish English Learners (EFL) and 5 Native English speakers serving as a control team. Check. All Polish students from the early 20s to the late 30s were given a grammar test and divided into intermediate and advanced proficiency levels. ESL students enroll in intensive English courses at Columbia University with an average length of stay in the United States per year. EFL students are enrolled at the University of Warsaw, where English is not their major, and they have not been outside Poland for more than a month and have not used English outside the classroom. Also.

The task assigned to the student is 42 sentences containing 75 using the omitted obligation of a / an, the, zero. Participants were asked to read the input sentences a / an, the, zero in the appropriate places. Blank spaces are not placed in sentences because the researcher feels that if blank spaces are entered, participants will fill every blank space with a or unreliable data generation. Each student is given 20 minutes to complete the assignment and they are asked not to use the dictionary. An analysis of the overuse of a / an, the, zero was performed. Unfortunately, examples of sentences used for this task are not reported in the report.

The results for this study showed that students at all levels of ability used more than zero texts. A direct relationship is shown between the ability level and the overuse of zero text, while beginners show too much use, less intermediate and advanced learners make the least number of overuse errors, zero. The result of using the wrong text is the same for skill level v. Misuse. On the contrary, this article is not overused by beginners. The level of overuse is highest among intermediate learners.

It is noted by Ekiert (2004) that the remarkable finding of this study is that EFL learners practice their ESL counterparts. This provides evidence that the purchase of an English text system does not depend solely on presentation. One of the reasons given for this difference in practice is that all EFL students are enrolled in a college program, while ESL students are different in their educational background. Usually enrolled in college level ESL classes for one semester.

Another study was conducted by Neal Snape in 2004, which examined the use of texts by English, Japanese and Spanish scholars. The study suggests that even if Spanish speakers use a text system, due to the L2 acquisition process, English speakers will make systematic transfer errors related to English texts similar to Japanese learners. He also predicted that L2 scholars would overuse the clear text.

Participants in this study were three English learners, three Spanish speakers and two native English speakers, acting as a control group. All participants ranged in age from 23-40 years with an average age of 28 years. All English language learners studied in the UK for six months and passed the exam with a score of 575 or higher on the TOEFL. Two groups of learners were divided into competency levels based on test scores.

The first task in this experiment was oral production, and participants listened to 13 short stories. Stories are presented using PowerPoint slides, and motivations are given to students on each slide to help them recall stories. They listened to it twice and recalled it with inspiration. Each recall is digitally recorded, copied and checked for accuracy. Past stories:

“I think the train is gone,” the young man said. ‘They could not find the driver.’ The older woman’s daughter answered.

The results showed that participants had difficulty using the correct text. Former result: ‘They can not find the driver.’

The results of this study also show that the accuracy of the text usage is directly related to the students’ performance on the entrance exam, while the beginner gets the lowest score with the use of the correct text while Advanced students get the highest scores.

The second task in this study was to fill in the blanks where participants had to read the conversation and fill in the blanks with the correct text a / an, the or zero. Former –

A: Come! We were in this store for hours.

B: I can not decide. Which shirt is your favorite?

C: I like striped ____ shirts.

The results of this work found that English and Spanish learners, Japanese English learners did not use clear text. This research shows that all English learners perform better in writing rather than words, making fewer typos. In the oral part of the work, advanced scholars are more accurate in using their texts, but errors in omissions still occur (Snape, 2004).

In all studies, it was shown that speakers of languages ​​other than English lacked the text system, using a / an, the or zero indicates a language transfer error when learning to speak English. It also shows that most errors are omissions because their native language does not have a text system. Although this is true for English, Korean, Russian, Polish and Japanese speakers, it is not true for Spanish speakers. This leads to the interpretation of Snape 2004 data and results related to language acquisition. Perhaps it is not a matter of the lack of text systems of other languages, it is directly related to the acquisition of a second language, whereas English texts are not received until later.

Research has shown that ESL texts are difficult to learn and teach to ESL and EFL students due to the breadth and complexity of the rules and exceptions regarding the use of texts (Norris, 1992). Some teaching techniques that may be useful for ESL and EFL teachers include providing additional descriptions, meaningful learning experiences, and the use of visual aids.

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