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Search Engine History – The Early Years
So where did it all start? In the first of three articles on the history of search engines, I looked at the history of the Internet and the creators of modern web-based search engines (the era before the first widespread web). browser). In this whistle-stop tour, I look at forgotten tools like Archie, Veronica and WAIS.
A Brief History of the Internet
The Internet is the greatest invention of the 20th century, allowing people to connect with each other and with the resources they seek almost limitlessly. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for this communications revolution, but the rapid development of technology in the 1960s paved the way for the Internet.
The grandfathers of the Internet are JCR Licklider and Leonard Kleinrock of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Licklider was the first head of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) computer research program, and in August 1962 he wrote a paper about a “galactic network” of interconnected computers around the world, through which anyone could access data from any site, Quick access to the program is now available. . Kleinrock’s packet-switching theory (1961-1964) and the creation of the first (small) wide-area computer network (or WAN) in 1965 (connecting the TX-2 computer at MIT) made this dream possible. Q-32 in California).
Kleinrock worked closely with Lawrence G. Roberts to develop the WAN, and it was Roberts who wrote the design of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) in late 1966 and worked increasingly with teams at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). ) of the United Kingdom and the RAND Corporation (both independently developed packet switching technology without knowing each other’s work).
In 1968, Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) were selected to build the ARPANET, and in September 1969, the first node was installed at the University of California (UCLA). A month later, a second node (at Stanford Research Institute) was added and UCLA launched the first Host-to-Host message sent to the Internet. My birth month!
Between 1970 and 1972, ARPANET added more computers, developed protocols, and wrote software. In October 1972 at BBN, March Ray Tomlinson developed the first email system and sent the first email (“quertyuiop”). The following year, the first ARPANET connections outside the US were made to NORSAR in Norway and University College London (UCL) in the UK. Visit my blog for a great 1972 video documentary on the ARPANET.
Although the original ARPANET grew rapidly in the 1970s, it remained primarily an academic resource. The next major step in the development of the modern Web began in 1982, when many participants adopted the TCP/IP protocol, which was faster, easier to use, and less expensive to implement than earlier protocols. This, in turn, made it easier for smaller networks to connect to networks and for those links to branch out in all directions. Since then, all networks using TCP/IP have called themselves part of the Internet (rather than ARPANET), and standardization over TCP/IP allowed the number of Internet sites and users to grow exponentially.
By comparison, these developments created the easel, but there were still small, expensive paints for the artist to use. Most early mass market Internet tools were overly technical and difficult to use. Do any of you remember the terms WAIS (wide area search), Archie (file search), Gopher (data search), Newsnet, etc.?
There were two key tools that would change all of this forever. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee and a team at CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) invented the hypertext-based World Wide Web. Four years later, in 1993, Mark Andresen of the US National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) launched Mosaic, the world’s first commercial web browser. Tim’s original specifications for URIs, HTTP, and HTML were refined over the coming years, and Andresen developed the first MOSAIC core-based Netscape web browser.
The rest, as they say, is history! Since then, the Internet has grown rapidly. According to internetworldstats.com, in December 1995 there were only 16 million Internet users (0.4% of the world’s population), by December 2000 there were 361 million (an increase of 2300%), and in December 2005 there were 1018 million. has grown to
The world’s first search engines
The father and mother of the modern search engine were Archie and Veronica. Created in 1990 by Emtaj, Heelan and Deutsch (students at McGill University in Montreal), Archie was, in a sense, the world’s first search engine. Archie was a tool used to index FTP archives, allowing users to search for specific files. Archie only indexed filenames (though wildcards were supported, which helped), so the user had to have a pretty good idea of the filename they were looking for.
In the earliest versions of Archie, the system operated once a month by logging into each member FTP server and requesting a listing. These lists are stored in a local file for searching using the Unix grep command. Once a user found a file in the Archie index, they had to connect to an FTP host and poke around until they found the file they were looking for (similar to Napster music file sharing almost 10 years later). It wasn’t for the faint of heart and the system was only used by tech heads or academics a lot!
The name Archie comes from the word “archive”, but users have come to associate it with the comic book series of the same name created by Bob Montana (featuring fictional teenage characters Archie Andrews, Betty Cooper, Veronica Lodge, Reggie Mantle and Forsyth). Jughead” Jones characters). So when Gopher took off in 1992, Foster and Barry (at the University of Nevada) named their newly developed Gopher search engine Veronica, after Archie’s comic book girlfriend. Officially, Veronica stands for “A very easy rodent-oriented network index for computer archives. means “.
Veronica was a constantly updated database of nearly every menu name on thousands of Gopher servers, and most major Gopher menus were directly searchable. Veronica was technically an improvement on Archie in that it (a) indexed the full name of the document, not just the filename, and (b) linked the user directly to the source file with one click. However, what neither Archie nor Veronica did was fully index the target document. This means that both of them lacked the so-called “semantic ability”, that is, the ability to link documents with different names but the same content.
In 1991, Brewster Kehle (at Thinking Machines) launched the Wide Area Information Server (WAIS) at Xerox PARC. WAIS has been on the scene of Internet history for a short time. However, it is arguably the first true pioneer of modern search engines in the sense that it was the first to fully index the entire text of Gopher and other Internet documents. As Kelly said at the time, he wanted users to be able to “jump through the scrolling.” WAIS added Veronica, which only searched the menu headings of Gopher sites, but quickly became obsolete due to the rapid growth of the World Wide Web (which replaced or front-ended all the major FTP, Archie, Gopher, and WAIS features).
At the time of writing, internet sales account for around 15% of all sales in the UK (up from 50% last year). In North America, the number remains high. U-Switch predicts that by 2020, 40% of all sales will be online, and Google is now the world’s number one brand; Not bad for a business less than 10 years old! Sometimes I find it hard to believe that so much has happened so quickly. My reason for writing this series of articles is, in part, to pay tribute to the pioneers of the Internet and search so that they don’t forget their vital contributions.
In the second part of the series, on my blog, I’ll review web search before Google dominated; the first web crawler WWW Wanderer and early pioneers such as Altavista and Northern Light.
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